The Brampton Incinerator facility, or KMS Peel, is located on a 15-acre site in Brampton, Ontario. The facility is designed to recover non-recyclable, recyclable, and non-combustible materials; to burn municipal solid waste; to create steam to drive turbines; and, to generate electricity from the turbine. To fulfil these functions, six integrated operating systems are in place which include: a material recovery system, four incinerators, four heat recovery boilers, one turbine generator set and condenser, two air pollution control systems, and a continuous emission monitoring system.
The facility is able to operate around the clock, 365 days per year and generates up to 9.3 mega watts per hour (MWh) of electricity. Its capacity is 450 tonnes per day of pre-processed solid waste, of which 400 tonnes is converted into energy.
Waste is sent through the material recovery system prior to being charged into the incinerators. Metals are recovered and non-combustible dirt, glass, or grit are removed. The remaining waste is charged into four controlled air-combustion modular two-stage incinerators. The incinerators are designed so that the lower or primary chamber is operated in a substoichiometric environment (insufficient air for complete combustion). The gaseous effluent from the primary chamber enters the secondary chamber’s turbulent mixing zone where combustion air is introduced to complete the oxidation process. This chamber operates at 1070oC (to ensure a 1000oC can be maintained for more than the required one-second retention time).
Hot gases from this process are passed through the heat recovery boilers, creating 48,000 kilograms per hour of steam at a 4.18 melting point and a 343oC (or 600 pounds per square inch) gauge. The production of steam varies as the waste heat content fluctuates seasonally between 4,000 to 6,000 BTUs per pound. The steam produced is sent through a 9.3 MWh turbine generator set and the power is sold to Ontario Hydro.
The flue gas leaving the boilers is directed to two parallel air pollution trains which are designed to absorb 90 per cent of the acid gases by the injection of hydrate lime and to remove 99.9 per cent of all particulate using fabric filter bag houses.
Continuous emission monitors are utilized both for control and monitoring of the flue gases. These units are calibrated automatically each day and quarterly audits and annual relative accuracy tests are conducted. Bottom ash from the primary chamber ejects into a quench tank and is removed via a drag conveyor to the bottom ash bay. This bottom ash represents 10 per cent by volume of the waste that was charged into the primary chamber. It is classified as non-hazardous and is disposed in the local landfill. KMS Peel and the region have entered into an agreement to build an ash-processing facility to recycle the bottom ash. The fly ash collected from the boilers, as well as the baghouse ash, is treated as hazardous waste and is the Region of Peel’s responsibility to dispose.
The tip fee for solid waste is approximately $70 per tonne. Residential waste is delivered to the plant by the region. The waste intake area (tip floor) has a capacity of 2,400 tonnes, sufficient to accommodate its daily requirements as well as to provide storage for the operation of the facility over weekends and holidays.
Written by Dan Pearce, plant manager of the KMS Peel Inc. Facility in Brampton, Ontario.