The City of Apeldoorn (165,000 residents) is situated in the centre of the Netherlands. They have used Diftar methodology to reduce waste generation. Diftar is an acronym for differential tariff and is essentially a form of User Pay.
In 2006 the amount of waste generated was about 206kg/resident/year. The goal was to reduce waste to 150kg/resident/year by 2011. This was accomplished by having carts/collection for SSO/leaf and yard waste as well as paper waste.
On average households pay a flat fee of $230 CAD per year for waste management. Residents use 240 grey bins for waste and pay an additional $10 each time they place the bin out for collection (collection is every two weeks). This system works as a utility with a key proviso that the municipality must break event and not make a profit.
They were initially also charged for the collection of SSO/Leaf and yard waste, which led to a significant decrease in the amount collected. When this fee was rescinded the amount of organic waste collected increased significantly and the City achieved its goal just one year late, in 2012.
The VAR, just outside of Apeldoorn, manages the City’s organic waste as well as providing other waste management services.
It manages organic waste through a combination of (dry) anaerobic digestion (Kompogas plug flow system with installed power of 2MW- http://www.axpo.com/axpo/bg/en/group/axpo-gesellschaften/axpo-kompogas-ag.html ) and outdoor composting (started in the 1990s). They currently manage about 240,000 tonnes/year (15% of all organic waste processed in the Netherlands) of organic waste on-site, of which 60,000 tonnes/year is digested. They produce electricity from the digestion process and receive about $0.17 CAD per kilowatt. (see photo)
The VAR also recycles artificial turf used in sports pitches and is the only facilty in Euorpe that provides this service. It is essentially in a long commissioning period as it tries to refine its processes to essentially dis-assemble the turf into its various component parts. A key ongoing challenge has been to fully separate these various component parts and minimize contamination. (see photo of baled processed artificial turf) http://www.var.nl/en/
Topell Energy uses torrefaction (a mild form of pyrolosis) to convert wood into a green coal product. This facility is undergoing a long commissioning process to refine both the torrefaction process and the subsequent pelletizing process. The green coal will be used at power plants and will help these plants to meet some of their GHG obligations. www.topellenergy.com