Collecting municipal waste on the North African continent can be a very challenging business. In Melilla, Ceuta, Morocco, Egypt, Tunisia, and Libya, a variety of factors affect the collection of municipal waste. Amongst these are high temperatures, and under development, with limited waste collection infrastructure and little investment of long-term sustainable waste collection systems although in some parts of North Africa, the private sector has invested in and provided modern waste collection systems.
FCC el Cairo Eurotech 6×4 chassis with 22 cubic metre Ros Roca Schorling 2R tailgate and comb and trunion lift. (Photo: Timothy Byrne)
In Melilla, off the Aiboran Sea, Fomento De Construcciones Y Contratas (FCC) has been awarded a long-term contract to collect waste on behalf of the municipality, which has an overall population of 71,448. For the waste collection service, FCC purchased a fleet of IPV two-axle narrow track 18-tonne 4×2 chassis of 2.3 metre in width for accessing narrow streets complete with Ros Roca Cross bodywork in 2002. In 2006, it purchased some Scania P94 three-axle, 26-tonne 6×2 rear steer chassis of standard width with Ros Roca Cross bodywork to collect waste in the larger streets of Melilla. All of the Ros Roca waste collection vehicles are fitted with a bin lift with comb and trunnion arms capable of emptying containers from 120–1100 litres capacity.
FCC constructed underground waste collection systems for the storage of 660-litre containers below ground level to help prevent the production of odours in the high temperatures. Waste is deposited into a litter bin type aperture above ground level where it falls into the 660-litre containers underground. These systems have been designed as a communal collection point for the deposit of municipal waste as well as having bottle, paper, and cardboard banks for recyclable materials. FCC empties the bottle and paper banks using a Scania P94 three-axle, 26-tonne 6×2 rear steer chassis fitted with a hooklift system and either an open top container to collect the glass or a Kiggen PTO compactor container for the collection of paper and cardboard.
The 660-litre containers are emptied at the underground waste collection system using an electronic adaption fitted to the tailgate of the Ros Roca Cross vehicles. The two crew / operatives connect the electrical adaptor to the
connection at the communal collection point, which hydraulically lifts the containers to street level. The contents of the 660-litre containers are discharged into the hopper of the vehicle before the containers are repositioned below ground level and moving on to empty the containers at the next communal collection point.
In 2010, FCC introduced the side loader collection system for use in Mellila where there are large quantities of waste produced. For this, FCC installed 3200-litre containers and invested in Scania P94 three-axle 26-tonne 6×2 rear steer chassis fitted with 25 cubic metre AMS side loading collection equipment.
In Ceuta, FCC also provides waste collection services through its subsidiary Ceuta – Transporte Maritimo de Residuos for 77,389 inhabitants. This waste collection service uses a fleet of Scania P94 26 tonne 6×2 three-axle rear steer chassis fitted with Ros Roca Cross bodywork with lifting equipment capable of emptying containers of 120–1100 litres capacity.
Urbaser, through its subsidiary TECMED, also collects municipal waste from municipalities in Ceuta. Urbaser / TECMED use EFE waste collection equipment from Turkey of 16 cubic metres capacity and mounted on Renault Premium 18-tonne 4×2 two-axle chassis to provide the waste collection service. The EFE equipment is non CE marked and suits the North African market because its hydraulics and safety systems are more straightforward compared to European CE marked waste collection vehicles.
In Morocco, waste is collected by two private sector waste collection contractors: Urbaser / TECMED and Veolia Proprete.
In the capital Rabat, Urbaser / TECMED collect waste in four districts of the city while French contractor Veolia Proprete collect waste in three of the districts. Waste is collected in 660-litre containers and dependent on the collection contractor, waste collection equipment is provided by Turkish manufacturer EFE and German contractor Faun. The waste collection equipments provided are in 16- and 22-cubic-metre capacities and are mounted onto Renault Premium two- and three-axle 18- and 26-tonne chassis. The equipment is non CE marked, which is more suitable for use in an under developed country such as Morocco.
Urbaser / TECMED also provide the waste collection services for Marrakesh, Tangier, and Casablanca. The collection service is similar to that provided in Melilla, Ceuta, and Rabat, using 660-litre containers for the collection of waste and EFE 16-cubic-metre waste collection equipment mounted onto two-axle Renault Premium 18-tonne 4×2 chassis.
In Egypt, the waste collection service used to be provided by its own citizens known as the ‘informal sector’. Any recyclable materials reclaimed were sold to provide poor families in Egypt with food and drink. Over the last 10 to 15 years, the Egyptian government has been outsourcing the collection of waste to European private sector contractors.
In the capital, Cairo, the waste collection contract was awarded to Spanish contractor, Fomento De Construcciones Y Contratas (FCC) through its Egyption subsidiary: Egypt Environmental Services SAE. This company provides the waste collection service through its Cairo division known as Arab Environmental Services SAE. It uses a variety of collection vehicles. Some examples of these are Isuzu NQR two-axle 7.5-tonne chassis with Farid Minimatic waste collection equipment mounted to it. This collection vehicle has no lifting equipment fitted to it and it is used to collect bagged waste in the narrow streets of Cairo. Larger waste collection vehicles are also used, for example, Iveco Eurotech and Mercedes Actros three-axle 26-tonne 6×4 double drive chassis of 26 tonnes gross vehicle weight. These chassis are fitted with Ros Roca Schorling 2R waste collection equipment of 22 cubic metres capacity and with a comb and trunnion bin lift which can empty containers of 120–1100 litres capacity.
FCC also provides the waste collection service in Giza through its operating company, Giza Environmental Services SAE. The collection service provided here is similar to that provided in Cairo using smaller satellite waste collection vehicles of the Farid Minimatic type for collecting bagged waste in Giza’s narrow streets while Iveco Eurotech 6×4 chassis fitted with Ros Roca Schorling 2R 22-cubic-metre rear loading compactors are used for the collection of waste in the larger streets from communal collection points housing 1100-litre containers. The larger collection vehicles are fitted with bin lift equipment, which can empty containers of 120–1100 litre capacities.
In Egypt’s third biggest city, Alexandria, Veolia Proprete provide the waste collection service. The company uses a variety of waste collection vehicles including Iveco Turbo Daily two-axle, 7.5-tonne 4×2 chassis fitted with Farid Minimatic equipment and bin lift including comb and trunnion arms. Larger collection vehicles include the use of Iveco Eurocargo two-axle 18-tonne 4×2 chassis fitted with Farid T1SM 16 cubic metre waste collection equipment and bin lifting equipment, which can empty containers of 120–1100 litre capacities. The Farid equipment is non CE marked and consists of levers to operate the bin lift and compaction equipment, which is better suited for use in under developed countries. Veolia also use DAF CF four-axle 32-tonne 8×4 chassis with Geesinknorba 3025 rear loading equipment complete with skip lift for the collection of bulky waste in larger 16-cubic-yard containers.
In Tunisia, waste collection is provided by both the Government of Tunisia and also Veolia Proprete. The Tunisian Government use a fleet of Farid T1SM 16-cubic-metre rear loaders mounted onto Renault Premium two-axle 18-tonne 4×2 chassis. Farid equipment is widely used across Tunisia because the Italian Government provides funding for the Tunisian Government. It is, therefore, seen as reciprocal in purchasing waste collection vehicles off an Italian brand.
The Farid waste collection vehicles are fitted with a bin lift comprising of a comb and trunnion lift capable of handling containers from 120–1100 litres capacity. It is non CE marked and consists of levers to operate the compaction and lifting equipment, which is better suited for a third world state.
In La Soukra, near the capital Tunis, Veolia Proprete provides the waste collection service. Veolia use a mixture of Iveco Eurocargo two-axle 18-tonne 4×2 chassis and Iveco Euro Trakker three-axle 26-tonne 6×4 chassis fitted with Farid T1SM 16 and 22-cubic-metre rear loading equipment. The Farid equipment is also fitted with a bin lift, which comprises a comb and trunnion lift capable of emptying containers of 120–1100 litres capacity.
In Libya, currently the waste collection service is provided by the government. The country does not have any developed waste collection infrastructure due to the recent uprising against Gaddafi’s government.
Some waste is collected in skip containers and on dump trucks in municipalities, while in other municipalities some rear loading waste collection vehicles are used.
In 2003 and 2004 the Libyan Government purchased some waste collection vehicles from Italian waste collection vehicle manufacturer Mazzocchia. The units consisted of 16-cubic metre Mazzocchia Mac3 model fitted with a trunnion lifter for emptying containers of 660 and 1100 litre capacity. The Mac 3 units purchased also consist of a drop down rave for the loading of bulky waste. These equipments were mounted onto Iveco Eurocargo two-axle 18-tonne 4×2 chassis.
As part of the order from Mazzocchia, the Libyan Government also purchased two SMRMAC 43-cubic-metre rear loading semi trailers. These have no bin lifting equipment fitted, but instead have a drop down rave and will be used as a mobile waste transfer station where smaller satellite non-compaction waste collection vehicles can discharge their loads into the rear of the semi trailer for onward transhipment to a landfill site. The Libyan Government also purchased two Iveco Eurotrakker three-axle 44-tonne 6×4 double drive tractor units as prime movers for the Mazzocchia SMRMAC 43-cubic-metre rear loading semi trailers to transport them for discharge at the landfill site.
More recently in December 2012, the Libyan Government purchased an additional six Mazzocchia 16-cubic-metre waste collection vehicles mounted on Iveco Stralis two-axle, 18-tonne chassis with raised steel suspension and of 4×2 configuration. They were also fitted with a bin lift with comb and trunnion arms capable of emptying containers of 120–1100 litres capacity. All equipments supplied by Mazzocchia in 2003, 2004, and 2012 are non CE marked and consist or levers and button controls with simplified electrics.
Despite this investment by the Libyan Government over recent years, in 2012 the Libyan Government advertised through the Official Journal of the European Union (OJEU) for interested private sector partners to bid for providing an integrated waste collection and treatment system for Libya. The country needs the investment from the private sector to help it move from being a war-torn country to being able to provide a sustainable waste management system for its citizens now and in the future.
There are similarities in waste collection techniques in all six countries mentioned. Waste is collected in 660 and 1100 litre containers placed at communal collection points along the streets. The waste collection service is provided in the day or night depending on the requirements of the municipality and whether the towns are tourist destinations.
In Melilla, Ceuta, Morocco, Egypt, and La Soukra in Tunisia, the waste collection operatives are provided with personal protective equipment as well as health and safety training. This has been instigated through municipalities outsourcing their waste collection contracts to the private sector. In other parts of Tunisia and Libya where the waste collection service is provided by the public sector, little investment has been made in health and safety systems and providing the collection crews with the correct personal protective equipment.
Because many of the capital cities in North African are old, with narrow winding streets, small satellite waste collection vehicles are used in either open back form or with bin lift. They discharge their loads into the larger waste collection / mobile waste transfer vehicles for onward transport to landfill sites. In Alexandria, Veolia Proprete also operates the contract to transport municipal waste in ejection trailers to landfills in the vicinity.
In conclusion, there have been some extensive developments in providing waste collection systems to various countries in North Africa through the interaction with the private sector. In certain countries in North Africa such as Libya, greater investment needs to be made by the private sector to provide a sustainable waste management system for its citizens.